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8 article(s) found.
Da-wei Kuan, Associate Professor, Department of Ethnology, National Chengchi University.
Shih-yuan Lin, Associate Professor, Department of Land Economics, National Chengchi University.
Su-feng Cheng, Research Fellow, Election Study Center, National Chengchi University.
A Preliminary Study of Single Member District Delimitation for Indigenous Legislators in Taiwan (in Chinese) Download
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Two often discussed issues remain in the elections for indigenous legislators in Taiwan. One is the way for identifying plain or mountain indigenous district is outdated and the other is, unlike their regional counterparts, the multiple member district is continued to be implemented in election. The former is an issue related to constitution regulation which implies a considerably difficult to be dealt with under current circumstance. Yet, though the constitution does prescribe the number of total indigenous legislators for plain and mountain areas respectively, it does not prescribe the district magnitude for each election. This has provided a possibility for redistricting the indigenous legislators in election. This paper aims at redistricting the boundary from multiple member district into single member district and assessing the potential impacts on the elections for indigenous legislators.

Three redistricting proposals are provided by this paper, the result suggests that in general, the criteria for delimitation such as population equality, contiguity and compactness could all be achieved. As for the impacts of replacing the multiple member district by single member district, this paper suggests that since population from the four main tribes of Amis, Paiwan, Atayal and Bunun make up eighty percent of the indigenous population, the electoral result after redistricting will not be dramatically different from those of multiple member district, all the seats might remain to be shared by the four main tribes. It is argued that, since indigenous legislators enjoy a solid electoral base at home, redistricting the electoral boundary would not affect her/his prospects for electoral victory. Moreover, the redistricting would significantly reduce the size of district and thus enable a more thorough constituency service.
Su-feng Cheng, Associate Research Fellow, Election Study Center, National Chengchi University.
Ethnicity, Identity, and Vote Choice in Taiwan (in Chinese) Download
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Ethnic and identity problems are important issues in modern Taiwanese politics. This paper examines Taiwanese identity from the aspect of ethnic and identity theory. The author develops a ”Taiwanese consciousness” index to explore the effect of identity in the past four presidential elections. The results show that Taiwanese consciousness has increased year by year, with more than half (54.7%) of Taiwan voters now classified into the high level of Taiwanese consciousness. The data also show that people with different degrees of Taiwanese consciousness vote differently and are increasingly polarized around identity. People with high-level Taiwanese consciousness tend to vote for pan-green candidates, while people with lowlevel Taiwanese consciousness tend to vote for pan-blue candidates. The data also indicate that the support bases of different parties are quite different. Votes for pan-green candidates mostly come from people with high-level Taiwanese consciousness, and this fraction has steadily increased; at the same time, support for pan-blue candidates has fallen significantly among this group. The analysis shows that partisan identification performs better than the ”Taiwanese consciousness” index at predicting vote choice, but the ”Taiwanese consciousness” index still has additional explanatory power. This paper also finds that the effect of ”sengi” (voters' provincial background) is not significant in the four presidential elections after controlling for other variables. This result suggests that the identity issue in Taiwan is now more an expression of ideological differences than ethnic ones.
Su-feng Cheng, Assistant Research Fellow, Election Study Center, National Chengchi University.
Survey Participation in Taiwan: Evidence from the ESC Surveys (in English) Download
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The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the outcomes of surveys throughout the past decade, as well as to evaluate the survey process. The results of this evaluation will be helpful for developing better research designs and methods in order to continue advancement in the field of survey implementation.

The outcome rate in ESC surveys indicates that people in Taiwan are reluctant to comply with interview requests and tend to decline to be interviewed- response rates remained below the 40% mark for the entire decade. Increasing the contact rate did not result in more cooperation from respondents, as the response rate actually fell over the same time period. In addition, refusal rates increased significantly. Also notable is that among the six categories of reasons for failure, the proportion of refusals has increased, while other failures have decreased as a consequence of ESC's efforts to improve fieldwork methods. The data also indicate that males, young people (under the age of 40), and people with lower levels of education (without senior high school degree) were under-counted in almost every ESC survey.

Results of a short questionnaire administered to respondents in the refusal samples of the 2000 ISVB survey show that it is possible that some people were still afraid to express their political beliefs in Taiwan. The results also indicate that participants and non-participants differed in age, education, ethnicity, party preference and unification- independence stance.
Su-feng Cheng, Assistant research fellow, Election Study Center, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
Focus Group: Theory and Application (in Chinese) Download
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Focus group research has become a popular technique for gathering qualitative data over the past two decades, and is used across a wide variety of different fields. But focus group hasn't drawn much attention in Taiwan's academic community. The application is mostly concentrated in marketing research. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to introduce the focus group research systematically to the Taiwan academic community, and hopefully this method can be adopted by more students.

In this paper, the origins, development, strengths and weakness of focus group will be introduced. We will also introduce the steps of conducting focus group, and some useful process to manage and analyze the copious data produced by the group discussions.
Su-feng Cheng, Assistant research fellow, Election Study Center, National Chengchi University.
Party Image in Taiwan - An Application of Focus Group (in Chinese) Download
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The concept and measurement of party identification have been an played an important role on explaining voting behavior in Taiwan' s election studies, and it also helped to accumulate numerous research. However, it is arguable to apply this concept to explain the one-party dominant system before the 1980s and multiple party system after the 1980s in Taiwan, because whether voters can formulate “stable’, identifi­cation toward a party as this concept was defined in the United States needs to be explored. Therefore, we can find different variants, i. e. , party identification, partisan preference, party support, partisan orienta­tion, partisanship, and party membership, when scholars tried to apply this construct to explain people’s voting behavior, but which one is better to fit in Taiwan's electoral politics remained to be sorted out. In this study, we employ focus group research to explore voters’ party images systematically to find out what differences among parties in people' s mind. We demonstrate what people think about political parties and we believe this might be a better way to clarify the concept of party identifi­cation and improve its application in the electoral studies in Taiwan.
Lu-huei Chen, Assistant Research Fellow, Election Study Center, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
Su-feng Cheng, Assistant Research Fellow, Election Study Center, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
The Study of Correlations among Interview Language Usage and Political Attitudes in Taiwan (in Chinese) Download
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In this paper, we examine how different dialects used in survey research, and present how language usage might be correlated with people’s national identity and Taiwan independence preference. It was shown that people’s national identity was correlated with language used in face-to-face interviews. People speaking Taiwanese dialect were more likely to identify themselves as Taiwanese, and people speaking Mandarin were more likely to identify themselves as Chinese. It indicated that language used by people’s daily life conversation might be a cue for their national identity. Therefore, national identity is more likely to connect with cultural dimension. However, in surveys, there was no connection between language usage and people’s preference on Taiwan independence issue.

From our findings, comparing with people’s “Taiwanese/Chinese” identity, people’s preference toward unification with mainland China or Taiwan independence is more likely to be a rational choice between two alternatives. For students of survey research and political identities research in Taiwan, our research findings are very constructive.
Su-Feng Cheng, assistant research fellow at Election Study Center, National Chengchi University, Taiwan.
The Types of Interviewer-related Error in Political Survey (in Chinese) Download
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Interviewer behaviors and procedures are most effective in producing a consistent data collection process in survey. The success of survey relies mostly on interviewers to execute the interviews correctly. Therefore, reducing the interviewer effect is an important issue in survey research. Flower and Mangione believe that ”Standardize survey interviewing” is one of the methods to reduce interviewer effect. In real settings, we cannot make interviewer behavior the same in every way, our critical task is to identify solutions to minimize the difference between interviewers that actually affect answers. To achieve the purpose of minimizing interviewer effect, this paper focuses on discovering the interviewer-related error in surveys and sorting the error types systematically. By realizing the types of interviewer-related errors, we propose some solutions to reduce and prevent the frequently errors.
Su-Feng Cheng, Assistant Research fellow of Election Study Center, National Chengchi University.
Lu-Huei Chen, Assistant Research fellow of Election Study Center, National Chengchi University.
Attitudes on Survey Participation and Its Change in Taiwan: 1986-1998 (in Chinese) Download
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In Taiwan, researchers and scholars widely use survey data to conduct research analysis, construct theories, and test hypotheses. However, problems came from process of data collection seldom been noticed. From the perspective of survey research methodology, this paper examined people's attitudes on survey participation in Taiwan between 1986 and 1998. This research showed that, in Taiwan, people became less likely to participate in survey interview even political environment became more democratic and open in the last decade. Among people who did not participate in survey, one quarter of them can not be reached by interviewers, and one out off our can be reached but refused to participate in survey. Worthy to be noticed is that the ratio of” refuse to be interviewed ”increased gradually. Compared with survey topic on ”election studies”, survey topic on ”relation between Taiwan and Mainland China” received higher refusal rate. This paper indicated that the response rate of sensitive questions was influenced by respondents' demographic background and level of information they had. Men, youths, mainlanders, high-educated,and party identifiers were more likely to answer the sensitive question-whom did you vote for-in this research. Type of elections also played a role on response rate. In the survey on presidential election and gubernatorial/mayoral election, non-response rates on reporting preferential candidates were lower than non-response rates in legislative elections. Therefore,the difference of electoral system between single member district and SNTV might affect non-response rates. Several methodological suggestions are also presented for future survey participation research.